The current economic downturn has impacted gaming establishments, including those operated by Indian tribes, resulting in loan and bond defaults. Since the passage of the Indian Gaming Regulatory Act (IGRA) in 1988, tribal gaming has grown across the United States. The National Indian Gaming Commission (NIGC), created by the IGRA, regulates tribal gaming. NIGC reports show that more than 400 tribal gaming operations are now operated by more than 220 different tribes. Its reports reflect that since 1995, tribal gaming revenues have grown about five-fold from $5.4 billion to $26.7 billion in 2008.

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